Second Global NRN Conference
Introduction on Second NRN Global Conference
The first conference was able to bring the issues related to NRNs and their participation in the social and economic development of Nepal to the forefront. Since then there have been continuous dialogue, networking and interactions among the NRNs in various countries as well as in Nepal. To continue this process, it was decided to hold NRN global conference in every two years in Nepal.
The role of NRNs in overall development of Nepal and its economic transformation is well recognized in the country. A number of social projects with NRN involvement are being implemented, and some new projects are in the discussion phase. The HMG has shown commitment to come up with the NRN Ordinance that would provide legal framework for the NRNs' involvement in the social and economic development of Nepal.
The NRNs assembled in the first conference decided to form the Non Resident Nepali Association as well as its executive body called International Coordination Council (ICC). The NRN-ICC since then has had a series of meetings in different parts of the world. At its last meeting in Doha, Qatar, it was decided to recommend to HMG to jointly organize the second Global NRN conference from 7 to 9 October 2005 In Kathmandu. The FNCCI had submitted the formal proposal for the formation of a High-level Committee to HMG. As in the First Conference, the coordination role was entrusted to FNCCI for organizing the Second Global NRN Conference in Nepal. The Conference was held successfully with the participation of around 350 NRN delegates. Including the participants from Nepal, the total number was well over 500.
दोस्रो गैरआवासीय नेपाली विश्व सम्मेलनद्वारा जारी काठमाडौं घोषणा
दुइ बर्षअघि सम्पन्न पहिलो गैर आवासीय नेपाली विश्व सम्मेलनका उपलब्धीहरुबाट प्रेरणा लिई दोस्रो बिश्व सम्मेलन आज मिति २३ असोज २०६२ -९ अक्टुवर २००५) मा सफलतापर्ूबक सम्पन्न भई काठमाडौं घोषणा-पत्र जारी गरिएको छ ।
श्री ५ को सरकारबाट नेपालको र्सवाङ्गण्िा विकासमा गैरआवासीय नेपालीहरुको योगदानकालागी सबै प्रकारको सहयोग गर्ने प्रतिवद्धताको यो सम्मेलन स्वागत गर्दछ ।
गैरआवासीय नेपाली सम्बन्धी अध्यादेश-२०६२' जारी गरिएकोमा सम्मेलन त्यसको स्वागत गर्दछ । सम्मेलनका सुझाब समेतको आधारमा आवश्यक सुधार गर्ने श्री ५ को सरकार प्रतिवद्धता ब्यक्त गर्दछ ।
गैरआवासीय नेपालीको दोस्रो बिश्व सम्मेलनले नेपालको आर्थिक बिकासमा प्रत्यक्ष सहयोग पुर्याउन १०० मिलियन अमेरिकी डलरको 'नेपाल इन्भेष्टमेन्ट फण्ड'को अवधारणा स्विकृत गरेको छ ।
नेपालको समष्टिगत बिकास र नेपालीको आत्मसम्मान बढाउन स्थायी शान्ति अपरिहार्य छ । तर्सथ गैरआवासीय नेपाली दोस्रो बिश्व सम्मेलन शान्ति बहालीका लागि गरिने सवै प्रयासलाई र्समर्थन गर्ने र शान्ति प्रकृयाको निरन्तरताका लागि ठोस भुमिका निर्वाह गर्ने प्रतिवद्धता ब्यक्त गर्दछ ।
बैदेशीक रोजगारीबाट नेपालले प्राप्त गरेको ब्रि्रेषण -रेमिटेन्स) अर्थतन्त्रको मेरुदण्डको रुपमा रहेको स्विकार्दै बैदेशीक रोजगारका सम्वन्धमा यो विश्व सम्मेलनमा उठेका बिभिन्न समस्यालाई सम्बोधन गर्नका लागि छिटो भन्दा छिटो एक त्रिपक्षिय कार्यदल गठन गरी सुझाव पेश गर्ने प्रतिवद्धता ब्यक्त गर्दछ ।
देशको र्सवाङ्गण्िा विकासकोलागी स्वदेश र विदेशमा रहेका नेपाली महिला तथा युवा वर्गको सहभागिता अपरिहार्य रहेकालेे आगामी दिनमा यो सञ्जाललाई बिस्तार गर्दै लैजाने प्रतिवद्धता जाहेर गर्दछ ।
विश्वभर छरिएर रहेका गैरआवासीय नेपालीहरु नेपालका अनौपचारिक राजदुतका रुपमा रहेको पर्रि्रेक्षमा अर्न्तराष्ट्रिय समुदायमा नेपालको छवि उच्च बनाउने दिशामा गैरआवासीय नेपालीको ठूलो भुमिका रहन्छ । तर्सथ नेपालको छविलाई उच्च पार्दै संस्कृती, पर्यटन लगायतका क्षेत्र पर््रवर्धन गर्ने प्रतिवद्धता ब्यक्त गरिन्छ ।
बैदेशीक रोजगारमा गएका नेपालीहरुको भविष्य सुनिश्चित होस् भन्ने उद्धेश्यका साथ उनीहरुको आम्दानीको केही अंशलाई दिर्घकालीन लगानी योजना कोषका रुपमा स्थापना गरिनेछ । यो कोषलाई १० मिलियन अमेरिकी डलरसम्म पुर्याउने लक्ष राखिएको छ ।
भौतिक पुर्बाधारको विकासमा संयुक्त पहलका लागि श्री ५ को सरकार, गैरआवासीय नेपाली अर्न्तराष्ट्रिय समन्वय परिषद र नेपाल उद्योग बाणिज्य महासंघबीच साझेदारी उपयोग गरिनेछ ।
गैरआवासीय नेपालीमा रहेको ज्ञान/सीपलाई नेपालको बिकासमा उपयोग गर्न 'नलेज बैंक' को रुपमा उनीहरुको बिश्वब्यापी अभिलेख तयार गरिनेछ ।
श्री ५ को सरकार, नेपाल उद्योग बाणिज्य महासंघ, गैरआवासीय नेपाली अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय समन्वय परिषदले संयुक्त रुपमा सम्वद्ध संघ/संस्थासँग समन्वय गरी बैदेशीक रोजगारीमा जानेहरुको दक्षता अभिबृद्धि गर्न 'दक्षता अभिबृद्धि केन्द्र'को स्थापना गर्नेछ ।
नेपालमा उत्पादित वस्तुहरुको विदेशमा उपयोग बढाउन गैरआवासीय नेपालीको बिशेष पहल हुनेछ ।
विदेशबाट नेपालमा पैसा -रेमिटेन्स) पठाउदा औपचारिक माध्यमबाट पठाउन प्रोत्साहित गरिनेछ ।
स्थानिय समुदाय समेतको सहभागितामा ७५ वटै जिल्लामा शिक्षा र स्वास्थ्य जस्ता आधारभुत क्षेत्रमा कम्तिमा एक/एक परियोजना संचालन गर्ने प्रतिवद्धता ब्यक्त गरिन्छ ।
नेपालमा राष्ट्रियस्तरको र्सार्वजनिक पुस्तकालयको आवश्यकता रहेको कुरालाई हृदयंगम गर्दै र्सार्वजनिक पुस्तकालय स्थापना गर्ने प्रतिवद्धता ब्यक्त गरिन्छ ।
श्री ५ को सरकार तथा नेपाल उद्योग बाणिज्य महासंघका प्रतिनिधि मण्डल बिदेश भ्रमणमा जादा गैरआवासीय नेपाली अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय समन्वय परिषदसँग समन्वय गरी सम्वन्धित मुलुकमा बसोबासरत नेपालीलाई पनि प्रतिनिधिमण्डलमा समावेश गर्ने नीति लिइनेछ ।
|(मधुकर सम्शेर जबरा)
||अध्यक्ष, ने. उ. बा. महासंघ
||अध्यक्ष, गैरआवासीय नेपाली
अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय समन्वय परिषद
Second NRN Global Conference-> President's Report
After attending a very hectic and highly successful Second Global NRN Conference in Nepal, I am back to my routine job. But I am still overwhelmed by the response the conference received in Nepal and wonder how we could manage to do so many things just in three days! I am highly impressed by the dedication of nearly 350 NRN friends who came to attend the conference from 35 countries. Including the participants from Nepal, the total number was well over 500. Ignoring the calls of close relatives and the temptation of the festive environment around, many of them stayed in Hyatt, participated in late night discussions and contributed to the work of various task forces. Our presence in Nepal at this critical hour demonstrated our unity and gave a message to Nepali people that we really do care! All leading newspapers of Nepal evaluated the second global NRN conference highly.
On behalf of NRN-ICC, I would like to express my deep appreciation to all delegates of the conference. I also would like to thank those NRN friends who could not attend the conference but called me or send emails with their feedback and good wishes. Their invaluable feedback made the conference more productive.
Let me summarize the event as it happened. I apologize in advance for a long report, but one page summary will not do justice to all our activities. Based on deliberations in each plenary or parallel session, specific recommendations have been made, which will be posted on our website separately. Please visit the site later for the detailed report on the conference www.nrn.org.np.
4,5,6 October 2005:
Pre-conference activities included meetings with press, visits to Pashupatinath and Swayambhu temples, a tour of Kriyaputri Bhawan (an NRN philanthropic project with a cost of 11 million rupees) at the Pashupati Development Area, Tuhura Kalyan Sangh of Kirtipur, and so on.
On 6th , we paid courtesy visits to leaders of main political parties- Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala, Mr. Madhav Kumar Nepal, Mr. Gopal Man Shrestha, Mr. Surya Bahadu Thapa and Mr. Hridayash Tripathi. We received a very warm welcome from all leaders. They appreciated our willingness to get involved in the overall development of Nepal at this critical for the country hour. All parties pledged their full support to the movement and the conference in writing. Appreciating the significance of NRN conference, many political leaders including Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat, Dr. Minendra Rijal, Mr. Subhash Nembang, Mr. Hridayash Tripathi, Dr. Prakash Chandra Lohani, Mr. Padma Ratna Tuladhar, Ms. Sarita Giri, and Mr. Bhuwan Pathak kindly accepted our invitation and took part in the conference as speakers and panelists.
The Conference was inaugurated by HRH Crown Prince amidst a large gathering of NRNs and resident Nepalis, Kathmandu based diplomats and dignitaries at Birendra International Convention Center. Ani Choyang's blissful chants and "फुलको आँखामा " gave the ceremony an emotional charge. The Finance Minister, I and FNCCI President Chandi Raj Dhakal representing three organizing parties talked about the role and importance of NRNs dispersed around the world in the socio-economic transformation of Nepal. I mainly focused on the need to restore sustainable peace and urgency to amend some provisions of the currently promulgated NRN Ordinance to make it more inclusive. I demanded that the skill and knowledge transfer, intellectual contributions be considered on par with capital investment. Speaking on the occasion, the Finance Minister reiterated the government's readiness to hold discussions with NRNs on these matters and incorporate the recommendations of Second Global Conference in the regulation and other by-laws so as to provide more facilities to the NRNs to attract their skills, expertise and investment.
Since remittance has become the main factor keeping the Nepali economy afloat at present, it was appropriate for us to begin our deliberation on 'Foreign Employment and Impact on Nepali Economy' in the first plenary session held in the afternoon. The session was chaired by Dr. Mohanman Sainju and participated by Dr. Ganesh Gurung, Nepal Banker's Association's President Mr. Radhesh Pant, ICC member from UAE Mr. C.P. Sapkota, Mr. Hit Man Gurung of the Gorkha Welfare Society of UK and Secretary of the Ministry of Labor Mr. Purusottam Ojha as speakers. All participants extensively talked about the challenges and opportunities provided by the foreign employment, its role in poverty alleviation, problems faced by Nepalis in Malaysia and Gulf countries and lack of government support to them. Mr. Hit Man Gurung argued with an example of ex-Gurkhas that duel citizenship would not only increase remittance but also enhance overseas Nepalis' involvement in the development of Nepal. Mr. Ojha informed that the government has been working on the amendment of the 20 years old law on foreign employment and would incorporate recommendations made by the conference.
In the evening we felicitated three pioneer social activists of Nepal as 'Champions of Change in Nepal'- Mr. Bir Bahadur Ghale of Gorkha District, who introduced micro-hydro to his remote village and changed the living standard of his people and who has been developing Micro Hydel projects since then, Mr. Sudarshan Subedi, who has changed the lives of so many fellow handicap Nepalis by pursuing the cause of physically challenged people as a matter of right; and Ms. Lily Thapa, a pioneer single women who has challenged the perception of Nepali society on widows and women abandoned and humiliated by their husbands.
The last session (televised) of the day was on the Role of NRNs on Socio-economic Transformation of Nepalparticipated by Former Minister Dr. Prakash Chandra Lohani, Member of the National Planning Commission Dr. Champak Pokharel, Secretary of the Ministry of Finance Mr. Bhanu Prasad Acharya, Secretary of the Ministry of Industry Commerce and Supplies Mr. Bharat Bahadur Thapa and three NRN representatives Mr. Naresh Koirala, Mr. D.M. Hirachan and myself. Naresh jee chastised the government for failing to consult the primary stakeholders of the Ordinance and bringing it out secretly against the norms of an open and democratic society, while Dr. Lohani talked about the country in need of 'values transformation'. All participants agreed that without using the full potential of NRNs, the transformation of Nepal will be slow and incomplete.
The deteriorating image of Nepal abroad as a conflict-ridden country, its impact on Nepal's overall economy and how overseas Nepali communities can help restore and rebuild the culturally rich Shangri-La image of our motherland was the theme of the morning plenary session entitled 'Image Building and Promotion of Nepal Abroad'. NRN representatives Mr. Dibya Hada (USA), Dr. Kumar Basnet (Japan), Mr. Ram Thapa (Germany) and from Nepal Dr. Bhekh Bahadu Thapa and one of the leading journalists of Nepal Mr. Kunda Dixit were the speakers of the session. They highlighted a very significant role of NRNs as cultural and economic ambassadors of Nepal and various ways of involving them abroad.
The third plenary session deliberated on 'Generating Alternative Resources for Nepal'. Mr. Harris Stavrinides, an international financial consultant hired by the ICC, presented a concept paper on the creation of the USD 100-million Nepal Investment Fund. He presented modes of NRNs' participation, possible fund structure and a comparison of countries where the fund can be set up. The next paper entitled 'Turning Nepal into an International Business Center' was presented by the ICC member Mr. Janak Basnet. An international entrepreneur himself, Mr. Basnet indicated the need to review, reform or introduce as required the tax legislation, judicial system, banking and commercial laws, employment law, capital market regulations, and anti- money laundering regulations to attract international business community to Nepal. Commenting on the papers Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat and Dr. Minendra Rijal, leading political economists of Nepal, applauded the courage of NRN community for bringing the idea of the fund at a time of great need and indicated that such funds not only would provide necessary impetus to the economic growth, but will have multiplier effect on various sectors of Nepali economy. Ast. Minister of Finance Dr. Roop Jyoti and former Finance Secretary Mr. Ram Binod Bhattari highlighted the need to safeguard the interest of small investors among the NRNs.
Realizing that without bringing in youthful energy and large participation of women, the NRN movement will not achieve its goals, two parallel sessions were conducted-'Networking of Youth' and 'Networking of Women'. They were focused on networking mechanisms to connect NRN and resident Nepali youths and women and attracting their skill, expertise and enthusiasm in promoting the status of Nepalese youths and women in Nepal and abroad. Women speakers pointed out encouraging signs emerging within women's silent struggle for justice in Nepal and women from abroad could provide additional strength to the movement. ICC member Ms. Ranjana Udas (Myamar), Ms. Indra Ban (Australia), Ms. Subha Rana (Austria), and prominent Nepali social activists Ms. Rita Thapa, Ms. Shanti Chadda, Ms. Sarita Giri (Sadvavana) as well as Prof. Tulsi Diwasa, Ms. Yyankila Sherpa participated in the discussion as panelists in the women session, while in the youth session Mr. Sagar Onta (USA), Mr. Devendra Shrestha (UK), , Mr. Sunit Shrestha (Thailand), Mr. Basant Thapa (Germany) and office bearers of NYEF Mr. Saurav Jyoti, Mr. Rajendra Mulmi Mr. Senate Shrestha. A panel discussion with the involvement of Mr. Jiba Lamichhane (Russia) and representatives of leading political parties Mr. Subhash Nembang (UML), Mr. Hridayash Tripathi (Sadbhavana) and Mr. Bhuban Pathak (RPP) was organized with Mr Anil Chitrakar as moderator.. .
Considering the importance of upgrading skills of Nepalis aspiring to go abroad on short-term employment, another parallel session was organized on the Role of NRNs in Promoting Education and Skill Development in Nepal. ICC member from Canada Mr. Naresh Koirala talked about the potential of NRNs in this sector and efforts made by ICC to develop a skill directory as the 'Knowledge Bank of NRNs'. Prominent educationists of Nepal spoke on the need of skill development that would increase the amount of remittance by 30% and provide more security to Nepali workers abroad. The huge scope of cooperation between NRNs and Nepali educational establishments was also indicated by the VC of Purbanchal University Mr. Jagat KC in the session chaired by Mr. Kedar Bhakta Mathema, Former Vice Chancellor of TU, Dean of Manipal Medical Collage Mr. Satishkumar Dham, Dr. Bijaya KC of South Asian Institute of Management, VP of FNCCI Mr. Kush Kumar Joshi. Another prominent speaker of the session was the VC of Kathmandu University Dr. Suresh Raj Sharma, who also pointed out on the opportunities in the education sector.
The last session of the day, chaired by the International Coordinator Mr. Bhim Udas, was on the 'NRN Movement and its Future' and it was extremely interesting and important for us. We have 16 National Coordination Councils established so far. Representatives of many NCCs were there to talk about their problems, activities, and how they aspire to move the NRN movement ahead. Majority of speakers suggested the government to immediately amend the NRN Act and consider granting duel citizenship. Every country chapter made valuable remarks and recommendations regarding the organizational structure and constitution of NRN Association.
The final plenary session was by far the most important one- on NRNs' possible 'Contribution on Peace Building Process' chaired by Mr. Nayan Bahadur Khatri of the National Human Rights Commission. Speaking on the occasion, the rights activist and facilitator of the previous rounds of peace talks, Mr. Padma Ratna Tuladhar shared his past experience of failed peace talks with us and urged NRN community to take a pro-active role to restore peace in the country. He pointed out that as a non-partisan facilitator, NRN Association could play a meaningful role in bringing all parties to the negotiation table. ICC member from USA Mr. Sharda Thapa highlighted the importance of the restoration of democracy, respect to human rights and establishment of permanent peace in the country. Other speakers of the session were Padma Jyoti from Nepal Business Initiative for Peace, Dr. Durga Pokharel and the Secretary of the Peace Secretariat Mr. Bidhyadhar Mallik. Based on the recommendations made in the session we are going to discuss the challenges and opportunities of our peace initiative and mode of our involvement in the peace process in the newly formed ICC.
The Final official program was the Valedictory Session. It was addressed by the Chairman of the High-Level Committee Mr. Madhkar Shasher Rana from the HMG side, Mr. Bhim Udas from NRN side and the Chairman of the working committee and FNCCI VP Mr. Suraj Vaidya. Finance Minister Rana gave assurance of timely amendments in the NRN Act incorporating all the recommendations/suggestions made by the conference. The humorous yet moving speech of Mr. Vaidya was the highlight of the conference. We thoroughly enjoyed it.
The conference was concluded adopting a 16-point declaration signed by the NRN-ICC, HMG and FNCCI. We supported all initiatives to restore peace in Nepal; decided to constitute a trilateral working committee consisting of the NRN, FNCCI and government representatives to study the problems confronting the foreign employment sector and find appropriate solutions; expressed our commitment to operate at least one project related to education and health in all 75 districts of the country, accepted the concept of creating three funds: 1) USD 100-million 'Nepal Investment Fund', 2) another smaller fund of USD 10-million focusing on the welfare of Nepali workers, and 3) 'NRN Knowledge and Skill Bank' targeting highly educated and trained NRNs. Please visit our website for full declaration.
Although the official part of the conference concluded there, we continued with our Annual General Meeting. Everyday after the dinner we worked till 2 AM to formulate our suggestions/ recommendations to the government and extensively discussed future structure of the organization. Thanks to the rapid expansion of the NRN movement, the need to amend the existing constitution has been felt. Task forces were formed to make specific proposals for the amendment of NRN Constitution and NRN Ordinance. Following the recommendation of the task forces, we have decided to introduce three more Vice-Presidents to cover Australia, Europe and Asia. As our organization expands, NCC's role becomes crucial and responsible. So, we decided to provide NCCs with more autonomy to handle NRN issues pertaining to their respective countries. The task forces will continue to work for a while and collect and compile NRN communities' feedbacks from all over the world.
Finally, we elected the following office bearers:
President- Upendra Mahato
Vice-President (The Americas) -Sharda J. Thapa
Vice-President (Asia) -D.M. Hirachan
Vice-President (Australia) - Ms. Indra Ban
Vice -President (Europe) -Ram P. Thapa
Vice-President (The Middle East) -Sagar Nepal
International Coordinator -Bhim Udas
Joint-Coordinator -Chairanjibi Dhakal
Treasurer -Prakash Pun
The executive members are as follows:
Deepak Khadka- Australia, Ms. Subha Rana- Austria, Dr. Surendra Mahato- Belarus, Rabindra Man Shrestha- Belgium, Naresh Koirala- Canada, Susana Chammoro- Costa Rica, Niraj Govinda Shrestha- Cyprus, Harihar Aryal- France, Minendra Raj Shrestha- Germany, Pritam Shrestha- Hong Kong, Janak Basnet- Isle of Man, Dr. Kumar Basnet- Japan, Bharat Pathak- Malaysia, Cholanath Banjade- Myanmar, Ram Babu Nepal- The Netherlands, Bishal Sitaula- Norway, Bhim Prasad Poudel- Qatar, Jiba Lamichhane- Russia, Rudra Sharma- South Korea, Bishwa Prakash Giri- Singapore, Birendra Shrestha- Spain, Ramesh Shrestha- Thailand, Arjun Dahal- UAE, Hitman Gurung- UK, Jayant Nepal- Ukraine and Mukesh Singh- USA.
Later, at the first ICC meeting we co-opted three more members: Sagar Onta (USA), Ms. Ranjana Udas (Myanmar) and Dr. Jugal Bhurtel (Russia). Mr. Onta will take care of youth issues, while Ms. Udas will be responsible for networking of women. Dr. Bhurtel is appointed as the spokesperson of the ICC.
The First ICC meeting has decided to kindly request Mr. Kul Chandra Gautam (UN), Prof. Surya Subedi (UK), Dr. D.K. Dangol (Qatar) and Mr. C.P. Sapkota (UAE) to become the Advisors of newly formed ICC.
Three days passed unnoticed but those were highly productive and memorable days. I immensely enjoyed meeting so many friends from different parts of the world. I was humbled by their wonderful words of praise, suggestions and constructive criticism to my address. Let me also take the opportunity to personally thank Mr. Suraj Vaidya for his dynamic leadership as the chairman of the working committee, Dr. Hemnat Dabadi- the Executive Director of the FNCCI and NRN Division- for all the hard and intellectual work he has been doing from the background and Ms. Yashna Tamrakar for her great contributions as the Ast. Director of NRN Division. Without these wonderful people, the FNCCI family, all volunteers and highly supportive media we could not have had such a successful conference.
We have two highly successful years since the First Global Conference behind us. They have taken the NRN movement to a new height. We have successfully extended our network far and wide. Now we have 16 devoted country chapters in the world. Next two years are going to be extremely challenging for us. We must work hard to establish NCCs in all countries where Nepalis reside. We have promised to establish Nepal Investment Fund, which needs dedicated contribution of both time and money from all NRNs and particularly from ICC members. Our promise of social projects in all 75 districts of Nepal, establishment of an institution for skill enhancement and our peace initiatives will be closely watched by media. While seeking a more pro-active role we have also accepted a lot of responsibilities towards our ever-suffering motherland. So, let's get ready for an exciting journey ahead! Believe me, many, many committed friends and well wishers will join us in our difficult voyage. Their unceasing support and kind words will propel the motor of NRN movement.
Please don't hesitate to frequently write me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Thank you and Happy Deepawali
October 25, 2005
Region Wise Participation
The Conference participation will be on registration. All Nepali citizens residing abroad and people of Nepali origin (PNO) are welcome to participate in the conference. Altogether 400 NRNs and about 200 resident Nepalis are expected to participate in this conference.
From 7 to 9 October 2005
The inaugural session is expected to be held in the Birendra International Convention Centre (BICC) at Naya Baneshwor. The plenary and other parallel sessions will be organized at a suitable hotel in Kathmandu.
Region Wise Participation
||Region Wise Participation